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State Structure

****************************** Reaserch Writer ******************************

Presidential Election



The legislature in the United States is called the Congress. All kinds of laws are listed in the Congress as:

It has the status of an independent and autonomous body in making. It is clear in Article 1 of the Constitution. Organization of Congress:

  • Upper House and Lower House. Article 1 of the Constitution clearly states that the Congress and the Houses shall consist. The upper house is called the Senate, and the lower house is called the House of Representatives.

Federalism: American federalism is spread over a vast area, consisting of 50 states. It is possible to control such a large country with a single objective.

1-Legislative Powers:

The US Congress has been given full legislative powers under Article 1. In any case, the US Supreme Court has declared the laws to be unconstitutional. The US Congress has the following legislative preparations.

(i) Enforcing Taxes and Duties: Congress has full authority to impose taxes and collect taxes throughout the country. The Congress has the power to impose all kinds of duties.
(ii) Budget for Defense: The Congress has full legislative power to make budget for defense.
(iii) Nation States Giving aid to: The Congress provides assistance to all the nation-states to run their affairs efficiently. Congress has the power to provide financial loans to all national states through legislation.

(iv) Lending to foreign states: Congress may legislate to provide loans to all foreign states. If the Congress is convinced that its loans will not be repaid, then the Congress is still authorized to lend to any country.

(v) Responsible for the financial system: Congress is responsible for running the financial system of the United States.
It has the power to legislate to introduce new currency and enforce it in the country
(vi) Exchange: Congress has the power to fix the rate of exchange.

(vii) Defense Affairs: Congress also has the power to legislate on defense matters.

2. Constitutional Powers:

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He has full power to make the constitution. He is completely free to develop and promote the constitution. If supported, the constitution can be amended. There are other ways to amend the constitution. But without the approval of the Congress, it is almost impossible to change the constitution.

3-Electoral powers Powers:

Congress also has electoral powers. When the President is not elected by the Electoral Commission, then the President is elected to the House of Representatives. The names of the three candidates who received the most votes through the presidential election body are presented in the House of Representatives. One of the candidates is elected President by a simple majority in the House of Representatives.



The upper house of the US Congress is called the Senate. Has a total of 100 members. Before 1958, there were 48 states in the United States. It had 90 members in the Senate. Because every state in the United States has equal representation in the Senate. That is, each state, whether large or small, will have two members in the Senate from all states. In 1958 and 1959, Alaska and Hawaii joined the US federal system, respectively, bringing the number of members of the Senate to "10".

ELECTION: Initially, the Senate was elected by the State Assemblies of the United States of America. Term of the Senate: The US Senate is elected for a six-year term, and one prominent member of the Senate retires every two years. Thus, the US Senate is a permanent political body. ۔ Conditions for Candidate: Prerequisites for a Senate candidate are:

(1) Candidate must be a citizen of the United States.
2) Be a resident.
(3) He must be at least 30 years old; (4) He must have lived in the United States for at least 9 years. This period does not have to be continuous.
(4) Candidate should not hold any governmental or semi-official position from which he gets financial benefit.
Chairman of the Senate:
Chairman of the US Senate is actually
The Vice President of the United States. He is not a member of the Senate. The Senate elects one of its members, the so-called interim president, in the absence of a vice president, so that the interim president can preside over the Senate session. Whenever the Vice President becomes the President of the United States, the ProTempore President becomes the Permanent Chairman of the Senate. But the upper house of the US Congress is the most powerful house in the world. But in the current era, the importance and authority of the President of the United States has greatly increased, so the authority of the Senate has definitely decreased.
The powers of the US Senate can be examined in the following ways:

1- Legislative Powers: The Senate has the same legislative powers as the House of Representatives. Only the Money Bill is introduced in the House of Representatives. But the Senate has the power to amend the draft budget. The Senate may add its own provisions by amending the draft budget. If the two houses do not agree on an amendment to a draft, then the controversial amendment is presented to a conference committee. The members of this conference committee are some nominated members of the Senate and the House of Representatives. These members are nominated by the heads of both the houses. If a resolution is not reached through the Conference Committee, then the bill is rejected. The upper house of the rest of the world's democracies is not as powerful as the US Senate. Because in most countries, the lower house has more power. In the United States, however, the Senate has the same powers as the House of Representatives in matters of finance and legislation.

For example, all the federal government appointments that the US President makes from time to time. All of them are ratified by the Senate. Without the ratification of the Senate, those appointments can be declared null and void. But in the United States, the tradition of has not given much importance to the ratification of the Senate; constitutionally, whenever the President enters into agreements with other states, he has to ratify these agreements with the Senate. If he does not do so, the Senate may annul his treaty. For example, after the United Nations was formed in 1920, the United States wanted to join it. President Woodrow Wilson was a staunch supporter, but the Senate did not allow it, and the United States was unable to become a member of the UN General Assembly. Uses on But the House of Representatives does not have that power. However, the Senate also takes the House of Representatives into confidence for declaring war.

2: Judicial Powers: The Senate has the power to hear impeachment cases against any government official. It convenes as the High Court of Justice during the impeachment proceedings. The House of Representatives presents impeachment proceedings before the Senate, which has the power to hear the case. If two-thirds of the members of the Senate vote against a president, vice president or a judge, he or she must resign. Powers to amend the Constitution:
Introduces amendments.
Election of Vice President:

The Senate also has the power of C. If the Presidential Electoral Commission cannot select any candidate for Vice President, then the two candidates who The candidate is elected vice president by a simple majority of the Senate.
Oversight powers: The Senate also has the power to oversee all national departments. Has achieved She can ask any department at any time in this regard.

This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.

© 2022 Ajmal seen

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